A one-page report prepared on a single 11 x 17 sheet of paper that adheres to the discipline of PDCA thinking as applied to collaborative problem solving, strategy development or reporting. The A3 includes the background, problem statement, analysis, proposed actions, and the expected results.
A Production Line® representing “Actual” work progress as reported in the Loqust “Quantity Tracking” module.
The person or group that makes assignments to direct workers to complete a Task. (Last Planner® in LCI terms)
A Production Line® representing the completion projection based on actual past production of a Task based on its "to date" history. ("Here is how this Task will be completed if we continue doing what we have been doing.")
Literally refers to the colocation of the design and/or construction team in one place to facilitate collaboration. However, the Big Room concept is more than co-location of people; it is about fostering the collaborative behavior of the work they are producing.
As a verb: “to isolate one activity from the next.” A mechanism for deadening the force of reality unfolding in a manner that is contrary to what was anticipated in the plan. For example, a capacity buffer is created by committing to complete less work than what would be achieved according to the planned capacity of the resource. If production falls behind schedule, there is capacity available for catching up. (Lean production/construction generally prefers capacity buffers to inventory buffers.)
See Split Task
See Split Task
A Task field in Loqust used to provide a reference to other enterprise Project Control systems. This empowers the sharing of Loqust data with other systems. e.g. Cost Code, Owner's Bid Item number...
A horizontal line on a Production Graph® representing the “Quantity at Completion” for a particular Task.
When a Predecessor Sequential Task is not being completed fast enough and/or a Successor Sequential Task is being completed too fast, the overall progress of the Operation can be compromised due to Conflict between the Two tasks. This is graphically represented by an intersection of the two respective Production Lines®.
A Predecessor Sequential Task or Milestone that prevents a Successor Sequential Task from being completed. e.g. Late material delivery may preclude an installation task; the installation task is constrained by material delivery.
The CPM Key is used to identify a CPM activity to which a Task is related. The CPM Key must be a unique Activity ID in P6 or MS Project which enables schedule data to be shared back and forth.
A group of resources organized to compete a Task that can be represented by a Loqust Dimension. See Dimensions.
Quantity Remaining divided by the number of cycles (day, week or month) in which to complete a Task.
A characteristic of a Production Task necessary to efficiently plan and execute the task. e.g. location, crew, shift, system, … Dimensions empower Production Graphs® and Production Maps to provide insight to any number of production characteristics. They empower the visual answer to questions such as "Although I am on schedule, am I working in the right place?" Dimensions are the key to translating generic Production Tasks to meaningful management information.Dimensions and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.
A collection of related Dimensions that can provide the basis for splitting a Production Task. e.g. Location, Crew, …Dimension Groups and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.
A collection of one or more Production Graphs® designed to provide information for specific stakeholder(s) that is shared in real time by a URL link to both licensed and unlicensed Loqust users.
In Loqust, the End or To Date occurs at the last moment before midnight of next day from the specified date.
An organization that controls one or more Projects.
A Last Planner System (LPS) Metric used to evaluate Planning Efficiency created as follows:
A collection of related Tasks; Groups can be created in a hierarchical relationship allowing Groups to be used in re-creating a hierarchy of Tasks. Groups and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.
The Japanese word for continuous improvement. Kaizen has come to mean the philosophy of continuous improvement.
Japanese term meaning "signboard"; a communication tool used in JIT production systems. The signal tells workers to pull parts or refill material to a certain quantity used in production. The Loqust analogy is the Production Graph© that is a visual "signboard" easily understood by all construction Stakeholders.
The person or group that makes assignments to direct workers. "Project Architect" and "discipline lead" are common names for Last Planners® in design processes; "Superintendent" or "Foremen" are common names for Last Planners® in construction processes.
The collaborative, commitment-based planning system that integrates should-can-will-did planning. It includes master scheduling and phase planning to define what SHOULD be done, lookahead planning based on constraints identification and removal (the make-ready process) to establish what CAN be done, weekly work planning based on reliable promises reflecting what WILL be done, and learning based upon analysis of PPC (comparing DID against WILL) and reasons for variance.
A general descriptor for a typical Production Line®. It is characterized by reduced production during the beginning phase of a Production Task due to learning curve impact; increased production during the middle phase of a Task as a crew gains competency and reduced production during the later phase of a Task due to anticipated completion impact.
The amount of time delay between Predecessor and Successor Sequential Tasks to minimize the risk of work flow interruption. Also see Buffer.
Culture of respect and continuous improvement aimed at creating more Value for the customer while identifying and eliminating Waste.
A reference that enables practitioners in the AEC Industry to specify and articulate with a high level of clarity the content and reliability of Building Information Models (BIMs) at various stages in the design and construction process. It includes both the graphical representation, Level of Detail (lod), and the Level of Information (loi).
A schedule related event of zero duration independent of a specific Task important to tracking, managing and monitoring work progress. In many cases, dictated by Project contractual requirements. In Loqust, represented by a vertical line on a Production Graph®.
Task unit of measure used to measure work progress expressed in its native terms (e.g. Lineal Feet, pounds, cubic yards…)
Time that individuals performing work on a Task would typically not work (most commonly holidays). Represented by a vertical grey bar on a Production Graph®.
Represents the percentage of work accomplished on a Production Graph®, Quantity To Date/ Quantity at Completion. Commonly used to compare work progress of Tasks with different Native Units of Measure (e.g. cubic yards, Lineal Feet, ton...)
Occurs when a Task's actual Production is in excess of its planned Production creating potential conflict with other Production Tasks.
See Split Task
See Split Task
A contractual term to control payment based on the same work quantity as payment received.
A contractual term to control the payment due date based on the same payment received date.
Stands for Plan – Do – Check – Adjust. The cycle introduced by Walter A. Shewhart and popularized by Dr. W. E. Deming as a method of continuous improvement.
Metric used in the Last Planner System to gauge Planning Reliability. The number of planned completions divided into the number of actual completions in a given time period, usually referring to tasks in a commitment plan (e.g., a weekly work plan, a daily work plan, or hourly work plan). PPC is based on the binary assessment whether or not a task is 100% complete (“done done”). NOTE: PPC is not an earned value metric. Earned value metrics give partial credit to work underway (e.g., 20% done). A Loqust variation of PPC is the vertical distance between an Actual Production Line® and a Planned Production Line®.
A construction acronym used to identify a weekly planning meeting during which a Weekly Work Plan is developed.
A Production Line® representing a plan to complete a Schedule Task; a Schedule Task may have one or more Plan Production Lines®
A Sequential Production Task that must precede a Successor Sequential Production Task. A Loqust Production Graph® can visually display the following Predecessor relationships:
Most meaningfully represented as Work Quantity expressed in its Native Unit of Measure over time such as cubic yards per day. While Production can be expressed utilizing the Normalized Unit of Measure, it is less meaningful. However, this does have use in illustrating certain concepts of Production Control. Loqust recommends the use of weekly production measurement to correspond to weekly planning meetings.
The process of adjusting Production Rates of a series of Sequential Tasks so that the duration to complete each Task is equal over a specific area enabling these tasks to be completed at the same rate. When the duration of Sequential Tasks are equal for a defined area, they are said to be balanced; they all proceed at the same rate. Production Lines® are balanced when they are parallel on a Production Graph®.
Used to focus on how work is planned, executed and improved. The synonym for control is direction; Control deals with future expectations. A forward looking control that provides an ability to anticipate future events. Check out the following link to see more:
The Loqust Production Graph® is the canvas on which a Production Line® is displayed. Its automatic characteristics include:
The Loqust Production Line® is plotted on a Loqust Production Graph®. It made up of a series of related quantity and time coordinates. The slope of a Production Line® at any particular point is Production; the steeper the line, the higher the Production. Production Line® can have a number of contexts to include Plan, Parent, Actual, Average, Projection and Summary. It is the basic element of the Loqust Production Graph® and is fundamental to Production Control.With exception of an Actual Production Line®, every Production Line® is specifically tied to a Production Task and a Schedule. To identify a specific Production Line®, both the Production Task and Schedule need to be referenced such as:
A Loqust Production Map displays real time, multiple Production Task statuses for any Dimension. The Production Map can depict any variety of physical representations of a project ranging from a site plan to a floor-plan. The Production Map along with the Loqust Production Graph® are the primary Loqust visualizations of Production Control.
Loqust attempts to treat a construction of a project as a "Production System" with its use of Production Lines®, Production Graphs® and eReports. However, varying definitions of “Production System” have proliferated and differ widely.Toyota’s definition of the Toyota Production System is characterized as:
“A way of making things based on two concepts – the first is called "jidoka" (which can be loosely translated as ‘automation with a human touch’) which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced. The second is the concept of ‘Just-in-Time,’ in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.”Related definitions of Production System, notably Lean Production, take a given set of processes or operations, and focus on articulating principles for the reduction or elimination of different categories of “waste”. Some have classified “Lean” as a set of tools applied to production. As such, these definitions yield Qualitative analysis but are not specific enough to provide Quantitative mathematical results using operations science. Different than most other applications, Loqust currently collects a plethora of productivity data that lends itself to mathematical analysis. Ultimately, Loqust would like that data to develop a predictive model of construction that in turn would lead to a more precise profitability model of the construction process. Please visit the following link and download "PPI Position Paper: Defining “Production System” from an Operations Science and Project Production Management Perspective" to see a detailed explanation of this and related operations science subject matter from the Project Production Institute.https://projectproduction.org/resources/papers/
In a perfect world, Actual Productions Lines® will track exactly with a Plan Production Line®. However, Actual Production will seldom match Planned Production. In most cases, excess production can be as bad as insufficient production. The difference between Actual and Planned is termed “Production Variance”. A Production Variance Reason allows for a general categorization of the variance allowing a company to analyze where it can improve its operations.
A Loqust metric that collects a user defined set of general reasons (No Material, Equipment Breakdown, No RFI Response, Delayed by Predecessor, Inclement Weather...) for either Over or Under Producing enabling post activity analysis of root cause issues impacting performance with a visual tool such as a Pareto Chart.
A Work Structure focused on "Look-Ahead" work production to facilitate the creation of Production Control Metrics. While similar to a traditional Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or other control ledgers that supports traditional Project Controls such Job Cost, Forecasting, Estimating or CPM Scheduling, the PWS is distinctly different and created to support visual Production Control such as the Loqust Production Graph®.It is unique to a project and company culture and is developed to facilitate:
A set of interrelated Tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations to achieve a specific goal.
Used to satisfy project accounting and reporting requirements. The synonyms for controls are ‘measurements’ and ‘information’; Controls deal with facts, that is with events of the past.
A Production Line® where a Task Assignee can project how an “in progress” Schedule Task will be completed. By definition, the current Projection Production Line® starts where the current Actual Production Line® ends for a specific period. A Schedule Task may have one or more Projection Production Lines® for a given period.
A method of advancing work when the next in line customer is ready to use it. A “Request” from the customer signals that the work is needed and is “pulled” from the performer. Pull releases work when the system is ready to use it.
Used to design a project-based production system in conformance with Lean principles; it is a collaborative approach that includes those who are directly responsible for supervising the work on the project.
An “Order” from a central authority based on a schedule; advancing work based ona central schedule. Releasing materials, information, or directives possibly according to a plan but irrespective of whether or not the downstream process is ready to process them.
A representation of work required for a particular task; used to measure progress and completion of a Task. Best represented in a Native Unit of Measure. Historical quantities and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.
Work Quantity at Completion minus Quantity to Date as of a specific date.
Estimated Work Quantity required to complete a Task.
A detailed measurement of materials and labor needed to complete a construction process. They are developed by an estimator during the pre-construction phase and used to format a bid on the scope of construction.
Work Quantity completed for a Task as of a specific date (date sensitive).
Used to represent a nonspecific duration of time on a Production Graph® (e.g. Week 1, week 2, Week 3…) as opposed to Specific Time. Production Graphs® can be toggled between specific dates and relative time by utilizing the Relative Button beneath a Production Graph®.
A Loqust Project Setup file documenting a Schedule related to a specific Project. It will subsequently be used to create associated Production Lines®. It may be reflected as the following:
A series of Tasks that must be accomplished in a specific sequence (e.g. excavate the foundation, pour the foundation, back fill the foundation)
Used to represent a date specific on a Production Graph® as opposed to Relative Time (e.g. 1 May, 8 May, 15 May…) Production Graphs® can be toggled between specific dates and relative time by utilizing the Relative Button beneath a Production Graph®.
A Production Task that has been split by Dimensions into sub-Tasks in order to provide additional Production Control required to manage Task Progress. Dimensionally splitting a Task creates a "Parent/Child" relationship. Tasks can be split multi-generationally creating grandparent/parent/child... relationships. Several fundamental rules are created when splitting a Production Task:
Any individual or organization that has an interest in the progress or completion of a Project. Stakeholders can range from an individual worker to a foreman, a project manager, an executive, an engineer, an architect, or to a project owner.
In Loqust the Start or From Date occurs at midnight of the specified date.
A Sequential Task that must follow a Predecessor Sequential Task.
A weighted Production Line® that summarizes a selected number of detail Production Lines® whose behavior automatically mimics the detail behavior based on a weighting scheme. Used to summarize a selected set of Production Lines® and reduce the number of Production Lines® necessary to communicate to a specific Stakeholder. A Summary Production Line® will summarize Actual, Plan and Projection Production Lines®. A Summary Production Line® must start when the first of the Production Lines® being summarized starts and end when when the last of the Production Lines® being summarized ends. The shape of the Summary Production Line® between these two points will depend on the weighting given to the Production Lines® being summarized. The weighting scheme can be determined in a number of ways to include cost, man-hours, duration or personal experience.
A work structuring method used to balance cycle times between Sequential Tasks. Generally accomplished in 6 steps:
Target Production is assigned to a Production Task in Loqust. While only informational, it is displayed as a guideline when creating a Production Line®.
An identifiable item of work with a measurable start, end and progress necessary to complete a Project. Loqust Tasks can have one or more Task Types assigned to it depending on how the Task is purposed. Loqust is careful not to use other industry terms such as "Activity" when referring to a Task. Tasks and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.
The person or group that makes assignments and directs workers to complete a Task. (Last Planner® in LCI terms)
A user defined Task categorization identifying the underlying Project Controls or Production Control purpose; a Task may have one or more Task Types (e.g. Cost Control, Billing Control, Payment Control, Production Control, Inventory Control…). Only Tasks assigned as a Production Task Type are available to create Production Lines®. Other Task Types and associated quantities are available through the Loqust Export feature.
A look ahead metric in the Last Planner System that gauges the percentage of all tasks in a plan for a target week, that were anticipated in an earlier plan for that target week. TA is the ratio of the number of tasks common to two sets of tasks, one set further out from- and the other closer to the tasks’ execution time, to the total number of tasks in the set closer to execution. These sets could be any number of time periods apart, in general TAj-to-I. Together with Tasks Made Ready (TMR), it characterizes the ability of the planning team to make work ready.
A look ahead metric in the Last Planner System (LPS) that gauges Planning Efficiency by expressing the percentage of all tasks in a plan for a target week, that are included in a later plan for that target week. It describes the ability of the plan(ner) to forecast (predict) accurately at one point in time what tasks will take place at another point in time in the future. TMR is the ratio of the number of tasks common to two sets of tasks, one set further out from- and the other closer to the tasks’ execution time, to the total number of tasks in the set further out. These sets could be any number of time periods apart, in general TMRj-to-I. Together with Tasks Anticipated (TA) it characterizes the ability of the planning team to make work ready.
Occurs when a Task's Actual Production is lower than its Planned Production creating potential conflict with other Production Tasks.
What the Customer wants from the process. The customer defines Value.
The sequence of activities required to design, produce and deliver a good or service to a customer, and it includes the dual flows of information and material.
A team-based methodology for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for a series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the Customer.
See an explanation of the differences between traditional Project Controls and Production Control and how Loqust delivers value by providing a Production Control tool.
See the value of Loqust and how it manifests in real world circumstances between a Project Manager and Superintendent while discussing production goals utilizing a Loqust Production Graph®. A real world example of what Greg Howell called "Getting the right people talking about the right thing at the right time at the right level of detail" utilizing Loqust. Caught on a cell phone in a construction trailer.
Placing tools, parts, production activities, plans, schedules, measures and performance indicators in plain view. This assures that the status of the system can be understood at a glance by everyone involved and actions taken locally in support of system objectives.
The opposite of Value. There are seven basic types of waste including: defects, waiting, transportation of goods, motion, inventory, overproduction, and unnecessary process steps.
The commitment-level (“will”) planning step of Last Planning System (LPS) identifying the promised task completions agreed upon by the Task Assignees. The WWP is used to determine the success of the planning effort and to determine what factors limit performance. It is a more detailed level than the Look-ahead and is the basis of measuring Percent Promised Complete (PPC).
The process by which the Last Planner®establishes the plan for the coming period.
The smooth performance of work by a work unit, typically a crew. Reliable Workflow increases Production predictability and reduces waste. Unpredictable Workflow correlates with increased cost and unpredictable schedules.Workflow is positively impacted by:
Optional Loqust field available in the Quantity Tracking entry screen. Provides an unassailable daily diary for each Production Task if used systemically.
Designing the production system to determine who does what, when, where and how. This is usually done by breaking work into pieces, where pieces will likely be different from one production unit to the next. The purpose of work structuring is to promote flow and optimize system throughput by focusing on handoffs and opportunities for moving smaller batches of work through the production system.
1=Courtesy Lean Construction Institute
4=Courtesy of William Kay, Haley & Aldrich, Inc.
3=Courtsey p2sl, UCB
6=Project Production Institute
2=R. Arbulu, H. Choo, M Williams (2016). Contrasting Project Production Control