Loqust Glossary


A3 1

A one-page report prepared on a single 11 x 17 sheet of paper that adheres to the discipline of PDCA thinking as applied to collaborative problem solving, strategy development or reporting. The A3 includes the background, problem statement, analysis, proposed actions, and the expected results.

Actual Production Line® 5

A Production Line® representing “Actual” work progress as reported in the Loqust “Quantity Tracking” module.

Assignee 5

The person or group that makes assignments to direct workers to complete a Task. (Last Planner® in LCI terms)

Average Production Line® 5

A Production Line® representing the completion projection based on actual past production of a Task based on its "to date" history. ("Here is how this Task will be completed if we continue doing what we have been doing.")


Big Room 1

Literally refers to the colocation of the design and/or construction team in one place to facilitate collaboration.  However, the Big Room concept is more than co-location of people; it is about fostering the collaborative behavior of the work they are producing.

Buffer 1

As a verb: “to isolate one activity from the next.” A mechanism for deadening the force of reality unfolding in a manner that is contrary to what was anticipated in the plan. For example, a capacity buffer is created by committing to complete less work than what would be achieved according to the planned capacity of the resource. If production falls behind schedule, there is capacity available for catching up. (Lean production/construction generally prefers capacity buffers to inventory buffers.)


Child Task 5

See Split Task

Child Work Quantities 5

See Split Task

Code 5

A Task field in Loqust used to provide a reference to other enterprise Project Control systems.  This empowers the sharing of Loqust data with other systems. e.g. Cost Code, Owner's Bid Item number...

Completion Line 5

A horizontal line on a Production Graph® representing the “Quantity at Completion” for a particular Task.


When a Predecessor Sequential Task is not being completed fast enough and/or a Successor Sequential Task is being completed too fast, the overall progress of the Operation can be compromised due to Conflict between the Two tasks. This is graphically represented by an intersection of the two respective Production Lines®.


A Predecessor Sequential Task or Milestone that prevents a Successor Sequential Task from being completed. e.g. Late material delivery may preclude an installation task; the installation task is constrained by material delivery.


The CPM Key is used to identify a CPM activity to which a Task is related. The CPM Key must be a unique Activity ID in P6 or MS Project which enables schedule data to be shared back and forth.


A group of resources organized to compete a Task that can be represented by a Loqust Dimension. See Dimensions.


Default Quantity (Projection Line®)

Quantity Remaining divided by the number of cycles (day, week or month) in which to complete a Task.

Dimension 5

A characteristic  of a Production Task necessary to efficiently plan and execute the task. e.g. location, crew, shift, system, … Dimensions empower Production Graphs® and Production Maps to provide insight to any number of production characteristics. They empower the visual answer to questions such as "Although I am on schedule, am I working in the right place?" Dimensions are the key to translating generic Production Tasks to meaningful management information.Dimensions and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.

Dimension Group 5

A collection of related Dimensions that can provide the basis for splitting a Production Task. e.g. Location, Crew, …Dimension Groups and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.


e-Report 5

A collection of one or more Production Graphs® designed to provide information for specific stakeholder(s) that is shared in real time by a URL link to both licensed and unlicensed Loqust users.

End Date 5

In Loqust, the End or To Date occurs at the last moment before midnight of next day from the specified date.

Entity 5

An organization that controls one or more Projects.


Frequency of Failure (Variance) 4

A Last Planner System (LPS) Metric used to evaluate Planning Efficiency created as follows:

  • Planned Task completions are enumerated with planned completion date.
  • If a Task is not completed as planned, it is a Plan “Failure” or “Variance”.
  • A Failure/ Variance Master Table categorizing potential reasons for Failure/ Variance is created. E.g. RFI not Returned, Equipment Failure, Weather…
  • Each Failure/ Variance is categorized utilizing the Failure/ Variance Master Table.
  • A Pareto Chart is created illustrating the Frequency of Failure/ Variance by categories in the Failure/ Variance Master Table facilitating the identification of recurring problem areas.
See Loqust "Production Variance Reason" for related Loqust metric.


Group 5

A collection of related Tasks; Groups can be created in a hierarchical relationship allowing Groups to be used in re-creating a hierarchy of Tasks.  Groups and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.


Kaizen 1

The Japanese word for continuous improvement. Kaizen has come to mean the philosophy of continuous improvement.

Kanban 1

Japanese term meaning "signboard"; a communication tool used in JIT production systems. The signal tells workers to pull parts or refill material to a certain quantity used in production. The Loqust analogy is the Production Graph© that is a visual "signboard" easily understood by all construction Stakeholders.


Last Planner® 1

The person or group that makes assignments to direct workers. "Project Architect" and "discipline lead" are common names for Last Planners® in design processes; "Superintendent" or "Foremen" are common names for Last Planners® in construction processes.

Last Planner™ System (LPS) 3

The collaborative, commitment-based planning system that integrates should-can-will-did planning. It includes master scheduling and phase planning to define what SHOULD be done, lookahead planning based on constraints identification and removal (the make-ready process) to establish what CAN be done, weekly work planning based on reliable promises reflecting what WILL be done, and learning based upon analysis of PPC (comparing DID against WILL) and reasons for variance.

Lazy S Production Line® 5

A general descriptor for a typical Production Line®. It is characterized by reduced production during the beginning phase of a Production Task due to learning curve impact; increased production during the middle phase of a Task as a crew gains competency and reduced production during the later phase of a Task due to anticipated completion impact.

Lead/ Lag 1

The amount of time delay between Predecessor and Successor Sequential Tasks to minimize the risk of work flow interruption.  Also see Buffer.

Lean 1

Culture of respect and continuous improvement aimed at creating more Value for the customer while identifying and eliminating Waste.

Level of Development (LOD) 7

A reference that enables practitioners in the AEC Industry to specify and articulate with a high level of clarity the content and reliability of Building Information Models (BIMs) at various stages in the design and construction process.  It includes both the graphical representation, Level of Detail (lod), and the Level of Information (loi). 


Milestone 5

A schedule related event of zero duration independent of a specific Task important to tracking, managing and monitoring work progress. In many cases, dictated by Project contractual requirements. In Loqust, represented by a vertical line on a Production Graph®.


Native Unit of Measure 5

Task unit of measure used to measure work progress expressed in its native terms (e.g. Lineal Feet, pounds, cubic yards…)

Non-Working Time 5

Time that individuals performing work on a Task would typically not work (most commonly holidays). Represented by a vertical grey bar on a Production Graph®.

Normalized Unit of Measure 5

Represents the percentage of work accomplished on a Production Graph®, Quantity To Date/ Quantity at Completion. Commonly used to compare work progress of Tasks with different Native Units of Measure (e.g. cubic yards, Lineal Feet, ton...)


Over-Production 5

Occurs when a Task's actual Production is in excess of its planned Production creating potential conflict with other Production Tasks.


Parent Task 5

See Split Task

Parent Work Quantity 5

See Split Task

Pay as Paid

A contractual term to control payment based on the same work quantity as payment received.

Pay when Paid

A contractual term to control the payment due date based on the same payment received date.


Stands for Plan – Do – Check – Adjust. The cycle introduced by Walter A. Shewhart and popularized by Dr. W. E. Deming as a method of continuous improvement.

Percent Promised Complete (PPC) 3

Metric used in the Last Planner System to gauge Planning Reliability. The number of planned completions divided into the number of actual completions in a given time period, usually referring to tasks in a commitment plan (e.g., a weekly work plan, a daily work plan, or hourly work plan). PPC is based on the binary assessment whether or not a task is 100% complete (“done done”). NOTE: PPC is not an earned value metric. Earned value metrics give partial credit to work underway (e.g., 20% done). A Loqust variation of PPC is the vertical distance between an Actual Production Line® and a Planned Production Line®.

Plan of the Week (POW)

A construction acronym used to identify a weekly planning meeting during which a Weekly Work Plan is developed.

Plan Production Line® 5

A Production Line® representing a plan to complete a Schedule Task; a Schedule Task may have one or more Plan Production Lines® 

Predecessor Sequential Task 5

A Sequential Production Task that must precede a Successor Sequential Production Task.  A Loqust Production Graph® can visually display the following Predecessor relationships:

  • Finish to Start
  • Start to Start
  • Finish to Finish
  • Start to Finish

Production 5

Most meaningfully represented as Work Quantity expressed in its Native Unit of Measure over time such as cubic yards per day.  While Production can be expressed utilizing the Normalized Unit of Measure, it is less meaningful.  However,  this does have use in illustrating certain concepts of Production Control.  Loqust recommends the use of weekly production measurement to correspond to weekly planning meetings.

Production Balancing 5

The process of adjusting Production Rates of a series of Sequential Tasks so that the duration to complete each Task is equal over a specific area enabling these tasks to be completed at the same rate. When the duration of Sequential Tasks are equal for a defined area, they are said to be balanced; they all proceed at the same rate. Production Lines® are balanced when they are parallel on a Production Graph®.

Production Control

Used to focus on how work is planned, executed and improved. The synonym for control is direction; Control deals with future expectations. A forward looking control that provides an ability to anticipate future events.  Check out the following link to see more:


Production Graph® 5

The Loqust Production Graph® is the canvas on which a Production Line® is displayed. Its automatic characteristics include:

  • Vertical Axis - Quantity of Work
  • Horizontal Axis - Time
  • The ability to segment (From and To date)
  • A variable time scale (day, week, month)
  • A color coded legend for all Production Lines® displayed (Clicking on the colored dot will hide that Production Line®)
  • A horizontal Completion Line for each Production Line® displayed
  • A set of Analytical Buttons that will toggle the display between related options
  • A detail Production Line® display beneath the Production Graph® when the Task Title is clicked in the Legend
Additionally, when creating a Production Graph®, the user may opt to display:
  • Milestones (a vertical dotted line from the Project Setup Milestone Master)
  • Non-Working Days (a vertical grey bar extending through the non-working duration, crews may or may not work on non-working days)
When viewing and manipulating a Production Graph®, only the display is changed, no underlying data is changed.

Production Line® 5

The Loqust Production Line® is plotted on a Loqust Production Graph®. It made up of a series of related quantity and time coordinates. The slope of a Production Line® at any particular point is Production; the steeper the line, the higher the Production. Production Line® can have a number of contexts to include Plan, Parent, Actual, Average, Projection and Summary. It is the basic element of the Loqust Production Graph® and is fundamental to Production Control.With exception of an Actual Production Line®, every Production Line® is specifically tied to a Production Task and a Schedule. To identify a specific Production Line®, both the Production Task and Schedule need to be referenced such as:

  • The Foundation Excavation (Production Task) for the Baseline Schedule Plan Production Line®
  • The Steel Erection (Production Task) for the Week 6 Weekly Work Plan (Schedule) Projection Line®
When using a Production Line® (except for Actual) in Loqust, both the Production Task and Schedule are referenced.Production Lines© and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.While there are some similarities, a Production Line® is distinctly different from a Flow Line  or a Line of Balance. It shared nothing with an Earned Value process.

Production Map 5

A Loqust Production Map displays real time, multiple Production Task statuses for any Dimension. The Production Map can depict any variety of physical representations of a project ranging from a site plan to a floor-plan.   The Production Map along with the Loqust Production Graph® are the primary Loqust visualizations of Production Control.

Production System 6

Loqust attempts to treat a construction of a project as a "Production System" with its use of Production Lines®, Production Graphs® and eReports.  However, varying definitions of “Production System” have proliferated and differ widely.Toyota’s definition of the Toyota Production System is characterized as:

“A way of making things based on two concepts – the first is called "jidoka" (which can be loosely translated as ‘automation with a human touch’) which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced. The second is the concept of ‘Just-in-Time,’ in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.”

Related definitions of Production System, notably Lean Production, take a given set of processes or operations, and focus on articulating principles for the reduction or elimination of different categories of “waste”. Some have classified “Lean” as a set of tools applied to production.  As such, these definitions yield Qualitative analysis but are not specific enough to provide Quantitative mathematical results using operations science. Different than most other applications, Loqust currently collects a plethora of productivity data that lends itself to mathematical analysis.  Ultimately, Loqust would like that data to develop a predictive model of construction that in turn would lead to a more precise profitability model of the construction process. Please visit the following link and download "PPI Position Paper: Defining “Production System” from an Operations Science and Project Production Management Perspective" to see a detailed explanation of this and related operations science subject matter from the Project Production Institute.https://projectproduction.org/resources/papers/ 

Production Variance 5

In a perfect world, Actual Productions Lines® will track exactly with a Plan Production Line®.  However, Actual Production will seldom match Planned Production.  In most cases, excess production can be as bad as insufficient production.  The difference between Actual and Planned is termed “Production Variance”.   A Production Variance Reason allows for a general categorization of the variance allowing a company to analyze where it can improve its operations.

Production Variance Reason (PVR) 5

A Loqust metric that collects a user defined set of general reasons (No Material, Equipment Breakdown, No RFI Response, Delayed by Predecessor, Inclement Weather...) for either Over or Under Producing enabling post activity analysis of root cause issues impacting performance with a visual tool such as a Pareto Chart.

Production Work Structure (PWS) 5

A Work Structure focused on "Look-Ahead" work production to facilitate the creation of Production Control Metrics.  While similar to a traditional Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or other control ledgers that supports traditional Project Controls such Job Cost, Forecasting, Estimating or CPM Scheduling, the PWS is distinctly different and created to support visual Production Control such as the Loqust Production Graph®.It is unique to a project and company culture and is developed to facilitate:

  • Unit of Measure
    • Native & %
  • Provide Take Off Guidelines
    • Manual
    • BIM
  • Work Quantity
    • At Completion
    • To Date
    • Remaining
  • Dimensions
    • Location
    • Crew
    • Work Type
  • Be Consistent with Last Planner®
PWS can provide Work Quantity data for:
  • Estimate WBS 
  • Schedule WBS 
  • General Ledger 
  • Job Cost Ledger 
  • Contract  Schedule of Value(s)
  • ...
The PWS can facilitate:
  • Job Cost
  • AR/AP
  • Contract Administration
  • Schedule (Narrative & Update)
  • Future Estimates
  • Dispute Resolution


A set of interrelated Tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations to achieve a specific goal.

Project Controls 2

Used to satisfy project accounting and reporting requirements. The synonyms for controls are ‘measurements’ and ‘information’; Controls deal with facts, that is with events of the past.

Projection Production Line® 5

A Production Line® where a Task Assignee can project how an “in progress” Schedule Task will be completed.  By definition, the current Projection Production Line® starts where the current Actual Production Line® ends for a specific period.  A Schedule Task may have one or more Projection Production Lines® for a given period.

Pull 1

A method of advancing work when the next in line customer is ready to use it.  A “Request” from the customer signals that the work is needed and is “pulled” from the performer.  Pull releases work when the system is ready to use it.

Pull Planning 1

Used to design a project-based production system in conformance with Lean principles; it is a collaborative approach that includes those who are directly responsible for supervising the work on the project.

Push 1

An “Order” from a central authority based on a schedule; advancing work based ona  central schedule.  Releasing materials, information, or directives possibly according to a plan but irrespective of whether or not the downstream process is ready to process them.


Quantity 5

A representation of work required for a particular task; used to measure progress and completion of a Task.  Best represented in a Native Unit of Measure.  Historical quantities and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.

Quantity Remaining 5

Work Quantity at Completion minus Quantity to Date as of a specific date.

Quantity at Completion (QAC) 5

Estimated Work Quantity required to complete a Task.

Quantity Takeoff

A detailed measurement of materials and labor needed to complete a construction process. They are developed by an estimator during the pre-construction phase and used to format a bid on the scope of construction.

Quantity to Date (QTD) 5

Work Quantity completed for a Task as of a specific date (date sensitive).


Relative Time 5

Used to represent a nonspecific duration of time on a Production Graph® (e.g. Week 1, week 2, Week 3…) as opposed to Specific Time.  Production Graphs® can be toggled between specific dates and relative time by utilizing the Relative Button beneath a Production Graph®.


Schedule 5

A Loqust Project Setup file documenting a Schedule related to a specific Project.  It will subsequently be used to create associated Production Lines®.  It may be reflected as the following:

  • Baseline Schedule
  • Recovery Schedule
  • Milestone Schedule
  • Project Manager's Schedule
  • Week 6 Weekly Work Plan ...
Included in the Loqust Schedule are the the following:
  • Name (May not be changed once used to create a Production Line®)
  • Description (Displayed when creating a Production Line®)
  • Date (Schedule effective date, may not be changed once used to create a Production Line®)
  • Any attached Document

Sequential Tasks 5

A series of Tasks that must be accomplished in a specific sequence (e.g. excavate the foundation, pour the foundation, back fill the foundation)

Specific Date 5

Used to represent a date specific on a Production Graph® as opposed to Relative Time (e.g. 1 May, 8 May, 15 May…) Production Graphs® can be toggled between specific dates and relative time by utilizing the Relative Button beneath a Production Graph®.

Split Task 5

A Production Task that has been split by Dimensions into sub-Tasks in order to provide additional Production Control required to manage Task Progress. Dimensionally splitting a Task creates a "Parent/Child" relationship. Tasks can be split multi-generationally creating grandparent/parent/child... relationships.  Several fundamental rules are created when splitting a Production Task:

  • The sum of all Child Work Quantities must equal the Parent Work Quantity (if the highest Parent Quantity at Completion changes, the Task Adjust Split QAC must be utilized)
  • Parent and Child must have the same Native Unit of Measure
  • Progress quantities must be collected at the lowest Child
  • Loqust makes appropriate totaling of quantities at each higher generation
  • Generally speaking, Production Graphs® are created at the highest generation
  • Quantity Production Graphs® reflecting Actual Production Lines® can easily be created a lower generations answering Dimensional questions like "Are we working in the right place?" or "How are different Crews performing?"...

Stakeholders 5

Any individual or organization that has an interest in the progress or completion of a Project.  Stakeholders can range from an individual worker to a foreman, a project manager, an executive, an engineer, an architect, or to a project owner.

Start Date

In Loqust the Start or From Date occurs at midnight of the specified date.

Successor Sequential Task 5

A Sequential Task that must follow a Predecessor Sequential Task.

Summary Production Line® 5

A weighted Production Line® that summarizes a selected number of detail Production Lines® whose behavior automatically mimics the detail behavior based on a weighting scheme.  Used to summarize a selected set of Production Lines® and reduce the number of Production Lines® necessary to communicate to a specific Stakeholder.  A Summary Production Line® will summarize Actual, Plan and Projection Production Lines®.  A Summary Production Line® must start when the first of the Production Lines® being summarized starts and end when when the last of the Production Lines® being summarized ends.  The shape of the Summary Production Line® between these two points will depend on the weighting given to the Production Lines® being summarized.  The weighting scheme can be determined in a number of ways to include cost, man-hours, duration or personal experience.


Takt Time

A work structuring method used to balance cycle times between Sequential Tasks.  Generally accomplished in 6 steps:

  1. Establish Production Data
  2. Location Identification & Cycle Time (Tact Time) Definition
  3. Task Sequence
  4. Production Balancing by Resource Leveling
  5. Create Production Graph to show Task relationships
  6. Measure Production and adjust as necessary

Target Production 5

Target Production is assigned to a Production Task in Loqust. While only informational, it is displayed as a guideline when creating a Production Line®.

Task 5

An identifiable item of work with a measurable start, end and progress necessary to complete a Project.  Loqust  Tasks can have one or more Task Types assigned to it depending on how the Task is purposed.  Loqust is careful not to use other industry terms such as "Activity" when referring to a Task.  Tasks and related fields may be imported or exported utilizing Loqust Import and Export Features.

Task Assignee 5

The person or group that makes assignments and directs workers to complete a Task.  (Last Planner® in LCI terms)

Task Type 5

A user defined Task categorization identifying the underlying Project Controls or Production Control purpose; a Task may have one or more Task Types (e.g. Cost Control, Billing Control, Payment Control, Production Control, Inventory Control…).  Only Tasks assigned as a Production Task Type are available to create Production Lines®.  Other Task Types and associated quantities are available through the Loqust Export feature.

Tasks Anticipated (TA) 3

A look ahead metric in the Last Planner System that gauges the percentage of all tasks in a plan for a target week, that were anticipated in an earlier plan for that target week.  TA is the ratio of the number of tasks common to two sets of tasks, one set further out from- and the other closer to the tasks’ execution time, to the total number of tasks in the set closer to execution.  These sets could be any number of time periods apart, in general TAj-to-I.  Together with Tasks Made Ready (TMR), it characterizes the ability of the planning team to make work ready.

Tasks Made Ready (TMR) 3

A look ahead metric in the Last Planner System (LPS) that gauges Planning Efficiency by expressing the percentage of all tasks in a plan for a target week, that are included in a later plan for that target week.  It describes the ability of the plan(ner) to forecast (predict) accurately at one point in time what tasks will take place at another point in time in the future.  TMR is the ratio of the number of tasks common to two sets of tasks, one set further out from- and the other closer to the tasks’ execution time, to the total number of tasks in the set further out. These sets could be any number of time periods apart, in general TMRj-to-I.  Together with Tasks Anticipated (TA) it characterizes the ability of the planning team to make work ready.


Under-Production 5

Occurs when a Task's Actual Production is lower than its Planned Production creating potential conflict with other Production Tasks.


Value 1

What the Customer wants from the process. The customer defines Value.

Value Stream 1

The sequence of activities required to design, produce and deliver a good or service to a customer, and it includes the dual flows of information and material.

Value Stream Mapping 1

A team-based methodology for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for a series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the Customer.

Value Videos - Loqust & Production Control 5

See an explanation of the differences between traditional Project Controls and Production Control and how Loqust delivers value by providing a Production Control tool.


Value Videos - One Small Step 5

See the value of Loqust and how it manifests in real world circumstances between a Project Manager and Superintendent while discussing production goals utilizing a Loqust Production Graph®. A real world example of what Greg Howell called "Getting the right people talking about the right thing at the right time at the right level of detail" utilizing Loqust. Caught on a cell phone in a construction trailer.



Visual Management 1

Placing tools, parts, production activities, plans, schedules, measures and performance indicators in plain view.  This assures that the status of the system can be understood at a glance by everyone involved and actions taken locally in support of system objectives.


Waste 1

The opposite of Value. There are seven basic types of waste including: defects, waiting, transportation of goods, motion, inventory, overproduction, and unnecessary process steps.

Weekly Work Plan (WWP) 1

The commitment-level (“will”) planning step of Last Planning System (LPS) identifying the promised task completions agreed upon by the Task Assignees.  The WWP is used to determine the success of the planning effort and to determine what factors limit performance.  It is a more detailed level than the Look-ahead and is the basis of measuring Percent Promised Complete (PPC).

Weekly Work Planning 1

The process by which the Last Planner®establishes the plan for the coming period.

Work Flow 5

The smooth performance of work by a work unit, typically a crew. Reliable Workflow increases Production predictability and reduces waste. Unpredictable Workflow correlates with increased cost and unpredictable schedules.Workflow is positively impacted by:

  • Understanding Production Control
  • Continuous motoring of Production Control metrics and appropriate adjustments
  • Minimizing Crew Mobilizations and Demobilizations
  • Adoption of Lean construction Principles

Work Quantity Note 5

Optional Loqust field available in the Quantity Tracking entry screen.  Provides an unassailable daily diary for each Production Task if used systemically.

Work Structure 1

Designing the production system to determine who does what, when, where and how.  This is usually done by breaking work into pieces, where pieces will likely be different from one production unit to the next.  The purpose of work structuring is to promote flow and optimize system throughput by focusing on handoffs and opportunities for moving smaller batches of work through the production system.



1=Courtesy Lean Construction Institute

4=Courtesy of William Kay, Haley & Aldrich, Inc.

3=Courtsey p2sl, UCB

5=Loqust Specific

6=Project Production Institute

2=R. Arbulu, H. Choo, M Williams (2016). Contrasting Project Production Control